高中英语重难点:定语从句该怎么学习?

来源:网络编辑:小悦2019-09-28 11:07:58阅读量:

  高中英语重难点:定语从句该怎么学习?定于从句几乎是每一年高考都要考查的一个重难点内容,也是我们英语学习中的一个重难点,无论是在初中的英语学习中,还是高中的英语学习中,定于从句都占据举足轻重的地位,那么对于我们来说,到底该如何学好定语从句呢?关于这个问题,高中网小编也是特地为大家整理介绍:
高中英语重难点:定语从句该怎么学习?

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  定语从句是高中英语语法中的一个重要的语法项目,也是每年高考英语考查的重点和热点,主要考查引导定语从句的关系代词和关系副词的选择。

  一个简单句跟在一名词或代词后(先行词)进行修饰限定,就叫做定语从句。先来几个小测试,看看你定语从句掌握的如何?

  定语从句小测试

  1.Do you know the man _______?

  A. whom I spoke

  B. to who spoke

  C. I spoke to

  D. that I spoke

  答案:C

  解析:“和谁讲话”要说speak to sb. 本题全句应为Do you know the man whom I spoke to. whom是关系代词,作介词to的宾语,可以省略。

  2.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working.

  A. where

  B. that

  C. which

  D. there

  答案:A

  解析:where是关系副词,表示地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

  3.Can you lend me the book ______the other day?

  A. about which you talked

  B. which you talked

  C. about that you talked

  D. that you talked

  答案:A

  解析:“谈到某事物”应说talk about sth.。about 是介词,其后要用which作宾语 ,不能用that.

  4.He isn't such a man ______he used to be.

  A. who

  B. whom

  C. that

  D. as

  答案:D

  解析:such……as是固定用法,as引导定语从句时,可以作主语,宾语或表语 .在本题中,as作表语。

  5.I went with him 19. I don't like ______ as you read.

  A. the novels

  B. the such novels

  C. such novels

  D. same novels

  答案:C

  解析:as引导定语从句时通常构成such……as或the same……as固定搭配,其中such和 same修饰其后的名词,as为关系代词,指代其前的名词引导定语从句。as在从句中可以作主语、表语或宾语。Such修饰单数名词时,要用such a……..本题中such books, such直接修饰复数名词。

  定语从句做题步骤

  从定语从句的考点分析,我们可以得出定语从句的做题步骤。

  1.划出定语从句。简单来说,就是从空格开始,划出一个完整的句子。

  2. 找出从句的谓语动词,判断从句是否缺少主语、宾语或表语等成分。如果从句缺少成分,则根据先行词选择相应的关系代词(which, that, who 和whom,非限制性定语从句不能用that);如果从句不缺少成分,则根据先行词选择相应的关系副词。

  定语从句注意事项

  1. 注意what 和that 的区别

  what 和that 都可以在从句中作主语、宾语和表语,但是what 用在名词性从句中,而that 用在定语从句中。例如:

  What surprised us is that he did it alone.使我们吃惊的是他一个人做了那项工作。(what 在主语从句中作主语)

  This is one of the buildings that were built last year.(that 在定语从句中作主语,指物,不能省略。)

  2. 注意分隔式定语从句

  定语从句一般紧跟在先行词的后面,但有时候也会被插入语、同位语、状语、谓语或其他定语等成分分隔。如果是隔开了的定语从句,则要先根据句意找到先行词,然后再进行句子结构分析。例如:

  She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students allows them to communicate freely with each other. 句意:“他有为学生营造一种良好的(课堂)氛围的天赋,这种氛围能够令学生交流自如。”从句意可知,先行词是an atmosphere,而不是students,所以此空应填which 或that。

  3. 注意限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的区别

  关系代词that 常用于限制性定语从句中,通常不用于非限制性定语从句。有些考生看到这是一个定语从句,指代物,又是作主语或宾语,就填that。如果这是一个非限制性定语从句,填that 就错了。例如:

  Clock is a kind of instrument, which can tell people time.句意:“钟是一种能够告诉人们时间的仪器。”这个句子是一个非限制性定语从句,只能用which 引导,不能用that。

  4. 注意定语从句的主谓一致性

  关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句的谓语必须与先行词保持人称和数的一致。例如:

  Tom is one of the boys who are from the USA. Tom 是从美国回来的男孩们中的一个。

  定语从句知识清单

  清单一:关系代词与关系副词的用法
高中英语重难点:定语从句该怎么学习?

  清单二:几组关系词的区别

  1.that 和which

  (1)当先行词为all, something, anything, nothing, little,any, much, the one, everything, few, some, none, everyone, nobody等不定代词时,关系代词用that。例如:

  There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什么不可能的事。

  (2)当先行词被all,any,no,little,much,only,few,one of,every,very,some,exactly,same 等修饰时,关系代词用that。例如:

  This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。

  (3)先行词是形容词最高级、序数词或被形容词最高级、序数词修饰时,关系代词用that。例如:

  The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben.在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大本钟。

  (4)which 可以和介词连用,而that 不可以。例如:

  The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable.我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞机实在很舒服。

  (5)引导非限制性定语从句时,关系代词要用which,不能用that。例如:

  The People's Republic of China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中华人民共和国是1949 年成立的,现在正变得越来越强大。

  2. as 和which

  (1)非限制性定语从句中的谓语是实义动词时,只能用which 作定语从句的主语。例如:

  The sports meeting was put off, which astonished us. 运动会被推迟,这让我们吃惊。

  (2) as 意为“正如……”,后面的谓语动词多是see,know, hear,watch,remember,discover,say,tell 等。例如:

  He was a foreigner, as I know from his accent. 他是个外国人,正像我从他的口音判断的那样。

  (3)谓语是say,imagine,expect,report,know,show,point,mention,announce 等动词的被动形式时,只能用as 作定语从句的主语。例如:

  As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earthonce every month. 众所周知,月亮每个月绕行地球一次。

  (4)as 引导的非限制性定语从句既可以放在主句前,也可以放在主句后;which 引导的非限制性定语从句通常放在主句之后。例如:

  As we all know, eating too much sugar is bad for our health。众所周知,吃太多糖对我们的身体不好。

  清单三:省略关系词的情况

  1. 当关系代词在从句中作介词宾语,而介词又在句末时,关系代词可省略,当关系代词作动词宾语时也可省略。例如:

  I will never forget the day (which/that) I spent in Hong Kong.我将不会忘记我在香港度过的那一天。

  2. 当先行词way 后面的关系代词为that 或 in which 时,that 或in which 可省略。例如:

  I did not like the way (that/in which) he talked to me. 我不喜欢他对我谈话的方式。

  清单四:在定语从句中,如果关系代词代替了对应的单词,那么这个单词在定语从句中就不能再出现,否则就重复了。例如:

  I'll never forget the day which/that I spent here.(the day 不能再出现了)我将不会忘记在这里度过的那一天。

  清单五:whose 表示所属关系,与名词连用,可指人或物whose 用来指物时,可用“of +which”来替代,此时词序为“限定词+ 名词+of + which”或“of +which+ 限定词+名词”。

  例如:

  He studies in a school whose buildings are beautiful. =Hestudies in a school the buildings of which are beautiful.=He studiesin a school of which the buildings are beautiful. 他就读的学校的楼房很漂亮。

  清单六:当先行词是case,condition,situation,position,point,stage,occasion 等名词,表示情况、方面、处境时,且引导词在从句中作状语,则关系副词用where。例如:

  He had to face the condition where pressure was heavy. 他必须面对压力很大的情况。

  清单七:“介词+ 关系代词”引导定语从句的用法

  1.当先行词表示时间,定语从句中缺少时间状语时,通常用关系副词when 引导,此时也可选用表示时间的介词+which 来代替关系副词when。例如:

  I still remember the day when I came here.( when=on which)我还记得我到这里度过的那一天。

  2. 当先行词表示地点,定语从句中缺少地点状语时,通常用关系副词where 引导,此时也可选用表示地点的介词+which 来代替关系副词where。例如:

  This is the house where I lived last year.( where =in which)这就是我去年住过的房子。

  3. 当先行词为reason,定语从句中缺少表示原因的状语时,通常用关系副词why 引导,此时也可以用for which 来代替关系副词why。例如:

  There are many reasons why people like traveling.(why=for which)人们喜欢旅游的原因有很多。

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