高考英语阅读理解词义猜测如何突破?

来源:网络编辑:七七2019-10-09 10:04:07阅读量:

  高考英语阅读理解词义猜测如何突破?词义猜测是建立在上下文都读得懂得情况下。所以,猜测的前提还是要多掌握词汇。试想一下如果前面的内容你没有看懂,再去看后面的东西又没看懂,你从哪里来猜测呢。所以这不是还是需要你掌握大量的词汇并且熟练运用吗?不要以为若是有不懂的单词就靠上下文来猜测,并不是每个人都能猜测出来的。高中网小编为大家详细的解读:

高考英语阅读理解词义猜测如何突破?
图源:摄图网

  阅读理解中词义猜测也是基本功和考试点之一,而且占有很高的权重。准确猜测词义需要宏观把握全文的基本功,也需要具备从“关键点”突破词意、句意和段落大意的能力。其中,“信号词”是重点掌握的

  猜测词义需要的基本功

  理解主旨要义;根据上下文(context)推断词意;理顺文章叙述脉络;猜测作者意图。

  猜测词义需要的“信号词”

  (一)利用例子(example)猜测词义

  为了阐明重要观念或者讲清抽象概念,作者采取举例的方式进行具体的说明和解释。根据例子所说明的事件、行为或活动,逆推出相关的生词的意思。

  信号词:for instance,for example,more precisely,such as,like,especially, include, consist of等。

  例:Cars must have certain safety devices such as seat belt, headlights, and good brakes.(装置)

  (二)利用对比(contrast)猜测词义

  作者讲述两种事物或两面个话题之间的差异时,常有表示对比或相反意义的标志词。

  信号词:however,in contrast,but,whereas,while,yet,on the contrary,though, on the one hand…on the other hand, for one thing…for another thing, instead of等

  例如:Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby.(邋遢的,肮脏的)

  (三)通过定义或解释猜测词义

  ★信号词:be, be called, means, be defined as

  例如:A mosquito is a small flying pest that thrust the skin and then drink blood.

  (四)利用因果关系猜测词义

  首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后才能猜词。

  信号词: because, since, as, for, due to, so, therefore, so…that, such…that, thus

  例如:Rubber can be made to stretch more than nine times its normal length because it is very elastic.(有弹性的)

  (五)利用重述(restatement)猜测词义

  在阐述某一概念或某一事情时,为使其更易理解,会采取另一种方式来加以解释说明。重述时往往采用比前面一种表达更为简单易懂的词语,而后面这种简单易懂的词语无疑为前面较难的词语提供了猜测的线索。

  信号词:in other words, to put it another way, that is to say, or, that is, i.e. , to be precise, refers to,in other words, to put it another way, i.e.

  例如:In some countries where there is very little rain, the farmers have to irrigate, or water, their fields.(灌溉)

  All whales fall into two groups, those with teeth and those without, Dolphins belong to odontoceti, that is to say, they are toothed whales.(齿鲸类)

  (六)利用同义词或近义词猜测词义

  信号词: or, like , as…as, the same as

  The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that was in effect last year.(取代)

  (七)利用构词法猜测词义

  部分单词由词根(roots)和词缀构成。其中词根决定单词最基本的意义,前缀(prefixes)和后缀(suffixes)决定词性或词义的发展方向。

  (八)利用生活经验和逻辑推理猜测词义

  例:When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anaesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him.(麻醉)

  高考之所以出这样的题目,是因为一个人掌握的单词再多,也不能保证哪个单词也认识,所以使用英语需要我们掌握的一项基本技能就是猜测词义。

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